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Linguistics/ TESOL

This research guide will help you in your research for studies in linguistics. You will find how to search for peer-reviewed articles, key reference books and journals, as well as helpful online resources.

Helpful Guides to the American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style

Paiz, J., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M.,…Keck, R. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from                                 

APA Reference Examples

The following are examples of how to cite sources in the bibliography of a paper or article. Remember that APA citations require a "hanging indent" and that most APA style papers should be in Times New Roman font. For citations within papers, APA uses a cite-in text parenthetical format usually consisting of the author's last name and year of publication; for instance, (Downey, 2009).

Book with one author

Author, A. B. (year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Johnson, S. (2002). Who moved my cheese? An amazing way to deal with change in your work and in your life. New York: Putnam.

Book with more than one author

Barnham, L., Priestley, P., & Targett, A. (1999). In search of Cheddar man. Stroud, UK: Tempus.

Chapter from a book

Jacobowitz, S. (2005). Chuck E. Cheese at noon: Adventures in parenting and higher education. In R. H. Bassett (Ed.), Parenting & professing: Balancing family work with an academic career (pp. 133-140). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Journal article with DOI

Author, A. B., Author, C. D., & Author, E. F. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Ma, L., & Lillard, A. (2006). Where is the real cheese? Young children's ability to discriminate between real and pretend acts. Child Development, 77(6), 1762-1777. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00972.x

Journal article without DOI (when DOI is not available)

Carter, L., Sumrall, W., & Curry, K. (2006). Say cheese! Digital collections in the classroom. Science and Children, 43(8), 19-23. Retrieved from


ERIC Document

Sabieh, C. (2002). American chunky blue cheese salad: A look at multicultural education. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED478571)

Test reviews

Wright, C. (2007). [Test review of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, Second Edition]. In K. F. Geisinger, R. A. Spies, J.F. Carlson, & B. S. Plake (Eds.), The seventeenth mental measurements yearbook [Electronic version].

Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis

Royyala, V. K. (2008). Product formulation and consumer acceptability of processed cheese made with different types of cocoas and chocolates & product formulation and quantitative descriptive analysis of aged cheddar cheese with different types of chocolate inclusion (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1459850)

Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis

Aryana, K.J. (1997). Microstructure of some dairy foods and food protein gels (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

Newspaper article

Hevesi, D. (2010, August 3). Morrie Yohai, 90, the man behind Cheez Doodles, is dead. The New York Times, p. A16.

Online newspaper article

Hevesi, D. (2010, August 2). Morrie Yohai, 90, the man behind Cheez Doodles, is dead. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Blog post

PZ Myers. (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Twitter or Facebook

Mississippi State University [msstate]. (2012, December 13). Celebrate 75 yrs of MSU cheese & tell us how you’re enjoying it this season, tweet a pic! Use hashtag #SayCheeseState.  [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Video blog post

Showtime (2008, March 10). Time-lapse of 1200 lbs. of cheese carved [Video file]. Retrieved from

In today's visually literate world, electronic images should also be cited when used in an academic exercise. Google Image Search has a tool to filter results by "usage rights." Not all images have the information needed for a full citation, however, you should make every effort to retrieve this information. Examples are listed below:

All elements of citation known

Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website)

Kulbis, M. (Photographer). (2006). Men pray [Photograph], Retrieved April 12, 2006, from:

Images with title (author unknown)

Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website)

Japanese Geisha [Photograph]. (2006). Retrieved April 10, 2006, from:

Images where author, title, year are unknown

[Subject and type of work]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website)

[Untitled photograph of a baby chimpanzee]. Retrieved April 12, 2006, from: