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Research Guides

Citation Guides

A guide to citing sources, including how to use the most commonly used citation styles (APA, MLA, and Chicago).

Print Guide

Harvard-Citation and Reference Examples

"Harvard Style" uses the author-date system of referencing rather than the footnote or endnote style. There are two ways of acknowledging the referenced work in the manuscript:

1. A parenthetical in-text citation, within the text or at the ends of sentences, and;

2. A reference list, alphabetized by the author or primary author's last name.

Harvard style is generally modified depending on the institution or discipline and is probably the most fluid (and some would say frustrating) style, but the general principles stay constant. In formatting papers, a good rule of thumb is to use Times New Roman in 12 pt. with one-inch margins. As with any paper, check with your instructor (or editor in the case of manuscripts intended for publication) and find out what they require.

 

Sample reference:

"Comics are a vital and growing medium with importance to scholars both investigating popular culture and culture in a larger sense. They are a reflection of popular thought and concerns and a tangible representation of a contemporary culture that is both increasingly visually oriented and electronically based."

Wagner, C. (2010), "Graphic novel collections in academic ARL libraries", College & Research Libraries, vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 42-48.

 

In-text Citations

Quotation:

"Comics “are a reflection of popular thought and concerns and a tangible representation of a contemporary culture that is both increasingly visually oriented and electronically based” (Wagner, 2010, p. 47).

Wagner (2010, p. 47) posits that comics symbolize “a contemporary culture that is both increasingly visually oriented and electronically based.”

 

Paraphrase:

In her conclusion, Wagner (2010, p. 47) points out comics reflect and embody the current media-focused culture, making it an important area for academics to use and explore.

 

In cases of more than one author:

Two authors: (Frey & Fisher, 2004)

Three or more authors: (O’English, et al., 2006)

 

References

Book, One Author:

Goldsmith, F. (2005), Graphic Novels Now: Building, Managing, and Marketing a Dynamic Collection, American Library Association, Chicago.

 

Book, More Than One Author:

Lyga, A. A. W. & Lyga, B. (2004), Graphic Novels in Your Media Center: A Definitive Guide, Libraries Unlimited, Westport, CT.

 

Edited Book:

Gere, A. R. & Shaheen, P. (eds.) 2001, Making American Literatures in High School and College, National Council of Teachers, Urbana, IL.

 

A Chapter in an Edited Book:

Brown, B. (2001), “Pairing William Faulkner's Light in August and Art Spiegelman's Maus,” in Gere, A. R. & Shaheen, P. (eds.), Making American Literatures in High School and College, National Council of Teachers, Urbana, IL, pp. 148-155.

 

Journal Article:

Wagner, C. (2010), “Graphic novel collections in academic ARL libraries”, College & Research Libraries, vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 42-48.

 

Newspaper Article:

Wyatt, E. (2006), “Publishers find growth in comics”, New York Times, 13 February, p. C1-C6.

Evening Standard  (2009), “East End teens turn their lives into comic”, 3 November, p. 24.

 

Dissertation or Thesis:

Romanelli, M. H. (2009), Exploring the culture and cognition of outsider literacy practices in adult readers of graphic novels, Ph.D., Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

 

Internet:

Green, K. (2011), “Comic Adventures in Academia: Four Nights in the Museum”, ComiXology, available at: https://pulllist.comixology.com/articles/457/Four-Nights-in-the-Museum (accessed 10 November 2015). 

 

 Email:

Parker, P. (2011), email, 20 June, pparker@dailybugle.com.