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Research Guides

Citation Guides

A guide to citing sources, including how to use the most commonly used citation styles (APA, MLA, and Chicago).

Chicago-Reference Examples

The Chicago Manual of Style supports two types of reference styles:  the Author-Date system and the Notes and Bibliography system (also used in the Turabian system).  Traditionally, those in the humanities have preferred the Notes and Bibliography system, those in the sciences the Author-Date system, and the social sciences may use either, depending on the field and journal.  The Author-Date System used in this guide corresponds to the “R” or reference system used in The Chicago Manual of Style.  The Notes and Bibliography System corresponds to the “B” or bibliography system. Note: when using the Turabian/Notes and Bibliography method, numbered citations should be in superscript format.

For additional questions concerning citation style or resources, please contact the Ready Reference Desk on the second floor of the Mitchell Memorial Library (662-325-7667 or reference@library.msstate.edu.)

This guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., 2010.  (A copy of the print version is available at the Ready Reference Desk, under the call number Z 253 .U69 16TH ED. 2010). Note that all material cited in this guide is available in the Mississippi State University Libraries print or electronic collections.

 

Book or monograph, single author:

Author-Date System:

Barrett, Michelle. 2001. Star Trek: The Human FrontierNew York: Routledge.

(Barrett 2001, 99-100)

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

      1. Michelle Barrett, Star Trek: The Human Frontier (New York: Routledge, 2001), 99-100.

      2. Barrett, Star Trek, 6.

Barrett, Michelle. Star Trek: The Human FrontierNew York: Routledge, 2001.

 

Book or monograph, more than one author:

Author-Date System:

Sekuler, Robert, and Randolph Blake. 1998. Star Trek on the Brain: Alien Minds, Human Minds. New York, W. H. Freeman.

(Sekuler and Blake 1998, 47)

*Note: for four or more authors, list all authors in the reference but only the first and "et al." in the in-text reference.

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

     1. Robert Sekuler and Randolph Blake, Star Trek on the Brain: Alien Minds, Human Minds (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1998), 47.

     2. Sekuler and Blake, Star Trek on the Brain, 48.

Sekuler, Robert, and Randolph Blake. Star Trek on the Brain: Alien Minds, Human MindsNew York: W. H. Freeman, 1998.   

  

Chapter from a book:

Author-Date System:

Kreitzer, Larry. 1999. "Suffering, Sacrifice and Redemption:  Biblical Imagery in Star Trek." In Star Trek and Sacred Ground: Explorations of Star Trek, Religion, and American Culture, edited by Jennifer E. Porter and Darcee L. McLaren, 139-163. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

(Kreitzer 1999, 141)

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

      1. Larry Kreitzer, “Suffering, Sacrifice and Redemption:  Biblical Imagery in Star Trek,” in Star Trek and Sacred Ground: Explorations of Star Trek,  Religion, and American Culture, ed. Jennifer E. Porter and Darcee L. McLaren (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999), 141.

      2. Kreitzer, "Suffering," 158-159.

Kreitzer, Larry, “Suffering, Sacrifice and Redemption:  Biblical Imagery in Star Trek.” In Star Trek and Sacred Ground: Explorations of Star Trek, Religion, and American Culture, edited by Jennifer E. Porter and Darcee L. McLaren, 139-163. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999.

 

Article from a print journal:

Author-Date System:

Ott, Brian and Eric Aoki. 2001. "Popular Imagination and Identity Politics:  Reading the Future in Star Trek: The Next Generation." Western Journal of Communication 65 (4): 392-415.

(Ott and Aoki 2001, 400)

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

      1. Brian Ott and Eric Aoki, " "Popular Imagination and Identity Politics:  Reading the Future in Star Trek: The Next Generation,Western Journal of Communication 65, no, 4 (2001): 395.

      2. Ott and Aoki, "Popular Imagination," 397.

Ott, Brian and Eric Aoki, “Popular Imagination and Identity Politics: Reading the Future in Star Trek: The Next Generation.”  Western Journal of Communication 65, no. 4 (2001): 392-415.

  

Article from an online journal:

Author-Date System:

Cantor, Paul. 2000. "Shakespeare in the Original Klingon:  Star Trek and the End of History." Perspectives on Political Science 29 (3): 158-166. Accessed March 3, 2015.  doi:10.1080/10457090009600707.

(Cantor 2000, 162)

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

      1. Paul Cantor,  “Shakespeare in the Original Klingon: Star Trek and the End of History,” Perspectives on Political Science 29, no. 3 (2000): 159, accessed March 5, 2015,  doi:10.1080/10457090009600707.

      2. Cantor, "Shakespeare," 162.

Cantor, Paul.  “Shakespeare in the Original Klingon: Star Trek and the End of History.”  Perspectives on Political Science 29, no. 3 (2000): 158-166. Accessed March 5, 2015,  doi:10.1080/10457090009600707.

  

Newspaper and magazine articles in print:

These can usually be omitted from the reference list if cited in the text.

Author-Date System:

Barnes, Brooks. 2013. "Paramount Hopes New 'Star Trek' Is a Global Crowd-Pleaser." New York Times, May 3.

(Barnes 2013, B1)

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

      1. Brooks Barnes, "Paramount Hopes New 'Star Trek' Is a Global Crowd-Pleaser," New York Times, May 3, 2013, B1.

      2. Barnes, "Paramount Hopes," B1.

Barnes, Brooks. 2013. "Paramount Hopes New 'Star Trek' Is a Global Crowd-Pleaser." New York Times, May 3.

 

 

Newspaper and magazine articles online:

Author-Date System:

Lee, Stephan. 2015. "George Takei Says Leonard Nimoy Was 'The Most Human Person I've Ever Met' -- Exclusive," Entertainment Weekly, March 2. Accessed March 3, 2015. http://www.ew.com/article/2015/03/02/george-takei-says-leonard-nimoy-was-most-human-person-ive-ever-met-exclusive

(Lee 2015)

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

      1. Stephan Lee,  "George Takei Says Leonard Nimoy Was 'The Most Human Person I've Ever Met' -- Exclusive," Entertainment Weekly, March 2, 2015, accessed March 3, 2015, http://www.ew.com/article/2015/03/02/george-takei-says-leonard-nimoy-was-most-human-person-ive-ever-met-exclusive.

      2. Lee, "George Takei."

Lee, Stephan. "George Takei Says Leonard Nimoy Was 'The Most Human Person I've Ever Met' -- Exclusive," Entertainment Weekly, March 2, 2015. Accessed March 3, 2015. http://www.ew.com/article/2015/03/02/george-takei-says-leonard-nimoy-was-most-human-person-ive-ever-met-exclusive.

 

 

Website (or a portion of a website):

A mention of the website in the text is usually sufficient ("In a February 27, 2015 article on Leonard Nimoy's passing, Entertainment Weekly said..."). Websites can also be cited in the following examples. Include a date of access or modification.

 

Author-Date System:

Ottens, Nick. 2015.  "Forgotten Trek: Designing the Enterprise-C." Accessed March 3, 2015. http://www.startrek.com/article/forgotten-trek-designing-the-enterprise-c.

(Ottens 2015)

 

Notes and Bibliography System:

      1. Nick Ottens, "Forgotten Trek: Designing the Enterprise-C," accessed March 3, 2015, http://www.startrek.com/article/forgotten-trek-designing-the-enterprise-c.

      2. Ottens, "Forgotten Trek."

Ottens, Nick.  “Forgotten Trek: Designing the Enterprise-C.” Accessed March 3, 2015. http://www.startrek.com/article/forgotten-trek-designing-the-enterprise-c.

Additional Online Information